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Category Archives: Basics of VBT

If you are a new reader to this blog space, every few months we like to break down some of the best and/or most recent velocity based training research. Sometimes it is directly related to VBT, sometimes it is broadly related to strength & conditioning. Either way, we provide the citation, a brief synopsis of methods and results, and leave the rest up to you. This week we wanted to bring you two recently released research articles closely related to velocity based training. Without further ado, here is our 5th research review:

STUDY 1

COMPARISON OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP-BASED LOAD-VELOCITY PROFILING AS A MEANS TO DICTATE TRAINING LOAD OVER A 6-WEEK STRENGTH AND POWER INTERVENTION

Researchers Dorrell, Moore, and Gee recruited 19 trained male subjects (23.6 ± 3.7 years) and randomly assigned them to either the Individual Load Velocity Profile (ILVP) group or Group Load Velocity Profile (GLVP) group. The purpose of the study was to determine whether improvements in performance were greater in the individual load velocity profiles or group load velocity profiles. Subjects were all tested in the back squat one repetition maximum (1RM), load-velocity profiling (LVP), countermovement (CMJ), static-squat (SSJ) and standing broad (SBJ) jump tests before and after 6 weeks of resistance training. Upon retesting of all subjects, results indicated that jump performance significantly increased for the ILVP group (p < 0.01; CMJ: 6.6%; SSJ: 4.6%; SBJ: 6.7%), with only CMJ and SSJ improving for the GLVP group (p < 0.05; 4.3%). The back squat 1RM increased significantly for both the ILVP (p < 0.01; 9.7%) and GLVP groups (p < 0.01; 7.2%). While both interventions yielded positive results, researchers suggested the findings proved that the individualized approach may lead to greater improvements.

Dorrell, H. F., Moore, J. M., & Gee, T. I. (2020). Comparison of individual and group-based load-velocity profiling as a means to dictate training load over a 6-week strength and power intervention. Journal of Sports Sciences.

STUDY 2

GUIDELINES AND RESOURCES FOR PRESCRIBING LOAD USING VELOCITY BASED TRAINING. IUSCA JOURNAL

Researchers Moore & Dorrell utilized multitudes of existing research to develop guidelines for prescribing load through the use of velocity based training. When prescribing load, coaches often have no means of taking velocity into account, and adapting training loads for the varying fluctuations in physiological conditions athletes can be in day to day. The researchers developed an app that can assist in prescription (linked below). While this was primarily a review of existing research, the investigators highlighted the importance of load/velocity profiles: “LVPs have been shown to remain unchanged despite significant increases in absolute strength and have therefore been theorised as a potential auto-regulatory approach for prescribing training load.” This research largely cited the first study we reviewed in this article.

Load/Velocity Calculator Here

Moore, J., & Dorrell, H. (2020). Guidelines and Resources for Prescribing Load using Velocity Based Training. IUSCA Journal, 1(1). Retrieved from http://journal.iusca.org/index.php/Journal/article/view/4

Also check out our Perch post on Understanding Force/Velocity Profiles

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Returning from injury can be a scary time for any athlete. Often, sports injuries are single-sided. For today’s post, we wanted to talk about using the data VBT provides as an additional piece of information in a return-to-play protocol. For coaches and ATs and even PT professionals working in rehab settings, VBT can provide helpful data as it pertains to overall athlete health and wellness. To help shed some light, we will use the all-too-common ACL tear as an example.

SOME ACL STATISTICS

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) there are approximately 250,000 ACL ruptures each year in the United States alone, accounting for upwards of $2 Billion in health care costs [1]. Despite return to play likelihood sitting at 81%, the risk of reinjury for the ipsilateral side sits around 5.8%, while the contralateral side sits at 11.8% [2]. According to Brophy et al., after 7 years only 36% of the athletes participating in their study were still playing compared to the 72% that had returned to play following their ACL injuries [4]. This decline was due in part to reinjury and additional surgeries [4].

RETURN TO PLAY AND VBT

While the autoregulatory component of VBT and adjusting training contingent on an athletes’ readiness and fatigue statuses can help prevent overtraining and potential associated injuries, VBT can also play a critical role in the return-to-play (RTP) protocol.

Typically the RTP protocol is a series of progressive exercises that slowly bring an athlete back to full playing level. The problem is that athletes and athlete bodies are intelligent and can often find a way to compensate that may be imperceptible to the coach’s eye. This is when something like a force plate can play a critical role in identifying when a compensatory pattern is emerging. While force plates can identify it, they may not be able to fix the issue unless the athlete is actively coached up, which may or may not be feasible depending on the setting.

Identifying differences between right and left sides can help shed light on any compensatory patterns post ACL reconstruction on the return-to-play road.
Identifying differences between right and left sides can help shed light on any compensatory patterns post ACL reconstruction on the return-to-play road.

What VBT allows for is to see the data from a power production and velocity perspective, from one side compared to the other. With devices like Perch, a right and left side split squat can be differentiated on the output screen. Additionally, because of these immediate and objective outputs, the athlete can not only see when one side is lagging behind, but can feel when it is producing the proper velocity and power and have that feeling confirmed with live data.

The live output and set summary screen on the Perch tablet app can shed light on whether one side is weaker than another and what needs improving.
The live output and set summary screen on the Perch tablet app can shed light on whether one side is weaker than another and what needs improving.

CONCLUSION

With ACL injury rates as high as they are, and as long as reinjury rates still exist, we know practitioners and athletes alike can still find and use more tools to help get back on the field and stay there. VBT may not solve all ACL return to play or reinjury issues, but it is another tool in the tool belt. Additionally, VBT and the data it provides can allow practitioners to make further assumptions about various injuries and help athletes develop the armour they need to play longer.

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SOURCES:

  1. CDC – Injury – ICRCs – CE001495. (2010, July 13). Retrieved January 20, 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/injury/erpo/icrc/2009/1-R49-CE001495-01.html
  2. Sepúlveda, F., Sánchez, L., Amy, E., & Micheo, W. (2017). Anterior cruciate ligament injury: Return to play, function and long-term considerations. Current Sports Medicine Reports.
  3. Joseph, A. M., Collins, C. L., Henke, N. M., Yard, E. E., Fields, S. K., & Comstock, R. D. (2013). A multisport epidemiologic comparison of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in high school athletics. Journal of Athletic Training.
  4. Brophy, R. H., Schmitz, L., Wright, R. W., Dunn, W. R., Parker, R. D., Andrish, J. T., … Spindler, K. P. (2012). Return to play and future ACL injury risk after ACL reconstruction in soccer athletes from the multicenter orthopaedic outcomes network (MOON) group. American Journal of Sports Medicine.

Most Velocity Based Training devices have the ability to output power as an additional metric alongside velocity. If you refer back to our VBT Dictionary Post you’ll see the difference between force, velocity, and power. While these are all very different concepts, they can all uniquely help describe various aspects of athleticism. Depending on the time of year, needs analysis of the sport, and the athlete in question, measuring and tracking power instead of velocity or vice versa is an important consideration.

In this post, we wanted to discuss power and velocity, and what instances a coach may want to consider tracking one over the other. Luckily, with Perch, power and velocity are recorded for every single rep of every single set and stored in the cloud for post-workout analysis, so you don’t necessarily need to choose. The live output is the only time you will only see one metric, and for that tracking power vs velocity is a consideration.

SOME GROUNDWORK

If you refer back to one of our earliest blog posts about the VBT crash course VBT crash course. you will see the force/velocity curve, we have also included this below

In this picture, you can see that the typical percentage zone of Peak Power lies within 30-80% of an individual’s 1RM [1]. We know this 1RM fluctuates and in order to accurately stay within that percentage, objective feedback is necessary [2]. It is also fairly easy to see that the peak power range covers three unique VBT zones or traits, Speed-Strength (30-60% 1RM) and Strength-Speed (30-60% 1RM) and Accelerative Strength (60-80% 1RM). We also know that power is described on a bell curve, as seen below:

When we talk about improving power, we are talking about the ability to improve the amount of work performed over a shorter period of time. Or as it pertains to VBT, the force produced at specific velocity. If your primary focus is to improve power, and you are less concerned with monitoring fatigue or the autoregulatory component of VBT, making power your primary feedback would be ideal.

WHEN TO TRACK VELOCITY

We have talked extensively about when and why to track velocity. As a quick refresher, monitoring velocity to adhere to specific traits associated with velocity zones, to monitor fatigue, to assess readiness, and to promote and teach intent are all great uses of velocity outputs. Additionally, velocity is excellent to use at maximum and minimum values in order to closely monitor speeds, it is also very helpful to use in season to continually adapt to athletes’ individual needs on the fly.

But what if you don’t necessarily need to track all of these things in live time? What if you want to simplify and teach your athletes to compete, to work hard, and prove it?

WHEN TO TRACK POWER

Power is a great primary metric to track when you just want maximal output from your athletes. When you’re focusing on training within the “Peak-Power” zone (or from speed-strength to strength-speed) of 30-80% 1RM and aren’t primarily concerned with fatigue status etc. An athletes’ off-season or preseason may be the optimal time to be chiefly focused on Power outputs over velocities. This is the time when they aren’t performing on the field, they have more time to be focused on the weight room and have a less variable schedule as it relates to a competition schedule and travel time. If you are focused on them producing power, proving it to themselves and their teammates with live outputs and on the leaderboard, and less with regulating loads, prioritizing power outputs for a training cycle periodically is a great idea.

CONCLUSION

This post was meant to serve as a guideline with some additional insight as to when a coach could use power instead of velocity. There is no right or wrong answer, as it will depend on your preferences, your athletes, and your program. Power outputs can complete a picture and help describe an athlete’s ability with greater clarity. Regardless, when using Perch you will only have to decide what is immediately output, as every metric will be recorded and stored for your analysis and convenience.

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SOURCES:

  1. Bompa, T., & Buzzichelli, C. (2015). Periodization training for sports (Third ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics.
  2. Jovanovic M, and Flanagan EP. (2014). Researched applications of velocity based strength training. J. Aust. Strength Cond. 22(2)58-69.
  3. Cronin, J.B., McNair, P.J., & Marshall, R.N. (2003). Force-velocity analysis of strength training techniques and load: Implications for training strategy and research, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(1), pp.148-155.
  4. Cronin, J, McNair, PJ, and Marshall, RN. (2001). Developing explosive power: A comparison of technique and training. J Sci Med Sport 4: 59–70.
  5. Maffiuletti, N. A., Aagaard, P., Blazevich, A. J., Folland, J., Tillin, N., & Duchateau, J. (2016). Rate of force development: physiological and methodological considerations. European Journal of Applied Physiology.
  6. Mann, B., Kazadi, K., Pirrung, E., & Jensen, J. (2016). Developing explosive athletes: Use of velocity based training in athletes. Muskegon Heights, MI: Ultimate Athlete Concepts.
  7. Randell, AD, Cronin, JB, Keogh, JWL,Gill, ND, and Pedersen, MC. Effect of instantaneous performance feedback during 6 weeks of velocity-based resistance training on sport-specific performance tests. J Strength Cond Res 25(1): 87–93, 2011.

This week we wanted to define some key phrases, buzzwords, and practices used with Velocity Based Training. Often and without even realizing it, coaches and athletes alike can misuse terminology associated with strength training and VBT, so we wanted to provide a quick at-a-glance look at some key definitions. We’ll also provide some equations to hopefully shed more light on some of these terms. All citations can be found at the bottom. Without further ado:

VELOCITY:

Measure of how quickly an object moves. The change in the position of an object divided by the time it takes. Velocity is a vector quantity and therefore has direction. Velocity is measured in m/s.

Velocity = (final position) – (initial position) / time

Velocity = displacement / time

POWER:

The rate at which work is done. Measured in Watts (W).

Power = work / time

Power = force x displacement / time

Power = force x velocity

FORCE:

The mass of an object multiplied by its acceleration, it has both magnitude and direction. Measured in Newtons (N)

F = mass x acceleration

SPEED:

Distance traveled per unit of time; how fast an object moves regardless of direction

Speed = distance / time

VELOCITY BASED TRAINING:

The training methodology of utilizing a piece of technology to track the movement speed in a given direction of an exercise

PERCENTAGE BASED TRAINING:

The training methodology of utilizing various percentages of an individual’s one repetition maximum (1RM) in order to determine the weight used in each training session.

1RM:

One repetition maximum; the maximum amount of weight a person can lift for a single repetition of a given exercise.

AUTOREGULATION:

A form of periodization that adjusts to the individual athlete’s adaptations on a day-to-day or week-to-week basis

MEAN (VELOCITY OR POWER):

The average of all numbers; a calculated central value defined by adding up all numbers and divided by how many numbers there are

m = sum of terms / number of terms

PEAK (VELOCITY OR POWER):

The maximum or highest value in a wave (upward motion)

ECCENTRIC:

In weightlifting, movement that lengthens a muscle while concurrent contraction occurs. Typically the lowering portion of a movement.

CONCENTRIC:

In weightlifting, movement that shortens a muscle while concurrent contraction occurs. Typically the raising portion of a movement.

ISOMETRIC:

In weightlifting, a static muscular contraction without any visible movement or change in the joint angle.

LOAD:

The amount of weight on the bar

FATIGUE:

In weightlifting, failure to maintain the required or expected force due to muscular exhaustion. The inability of a muscle to continue to contract.

EFFORT:

Specifically for VBT, the “intent” to perform a lift with maximum concentric acceleration. Alternatively, a vigorous or determined attempt.

INTENSITY:

In weightlifting, the difficulty of an exercise. In some circles, “how heavy” defines intensity. In physics, power transferred per unit area (W/m2)

VOLUME:

In weightlifting, the number of repetitions of a given exercise or training session

EXERTION:

The effort put forth of an individual on a given rep or set

FREQUENCY:

How often an individual performs something (a rep, a set, a workout etc)

MINIMUM VELOCITY THRESHOLDS:

Usually the velocity associated with the last successful rep in a maximal effort set, this will then serve as the cutoff velocity for maximal efforts in the future.

MEAN PROPULSIVE VELOCITY:

The average velocity from the start of the concentric phase until the end of the movement where the acceleration is greater than the acceleration due to gravity (all data points in the concentric movement above where acceleration of barbell is greater than -9.81m/s and averaged)

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SOURCES:

  1. Baechle, T., Earle, R., & National Strength & Conditioning Association (U.S.). (2008). Essentials of strength training and conditioning (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  2. Kennedy, D. B. M. & C., & Entheos. (2016). VELOCITY-BASED TRAINING AND AUTOREGULATION APPLIED TO “SQUATTING EVERY DAY”: A CASE STUDY BLUF. 24(7), 48–55.
  3. Science, R. S. of. (2017, March 28). Velocity Based Training for Maximal Strength. Retrieved from https://www.strengthofscience.com/articles/velocity-based-training-maximal-strength/
  4. Thomas, D. (2015). The dictionary of physical geography (4th ed.) [4th]. Wiley-Blackwell. (2015). Retrieved December 17, 2019, Velocity Based Training. (2019, December 16). Retrieved from https://www.scienceforsport.com/velocity-based-training/#toggle-id-1.

One of the biggest criticisms of Velocity Based Training is that you will never move a barbell faster than you will move your body when at a full sprint. This is absolutely true. VBT is not about trying to sprint faster, it is about optimizing bar speed while training for specific traits and adaptations. Enhancing those specific traits could ultimately lead an individual to improve upon their sprinting speed, but improving sprint speed is not the sole purpose of using VBT in the weight room.

Weight room training can inform speed on the field, all the while bulletproofing tendons, ligaments, and muscles through progressive overload and periodization. In no way is VBT a replacement for true speed and sprint work as part of training or conditioning. It is simply about optimizing bar speed with objective outputs to train with specificity for a desired trait and subsequent adaptation.

FOR SOME NUMBERS

Legendary speed coach, Charlie Francis (along with plenty of other sprint coaches) has repeatedly said to get faster, you must train faster [1]. Faster for Francis means training at speed that are 90-95% of max-speed, this same principle is true for JB Morin [2-5]. In the weight room, we can replace the word “max-speed” with “max-effort.” Regardless of the trait an individual is training for, provided their effort or intentionality lies within that 90-100% range, chances of adaptation are greater.

In 2009, Usain Bolt set the World Record in the 100m with a top speed of about 12.40 m/s, in that same race, he averaged about 11 m/s over the duration of the 100m [6]. Now, the layman or perhaps just accomplished high school athlete is going to be closer to 8 m/s. In the weight room, explosive movements (with the exception of a jump squat) are hard pressed to exceed 3 m/s.

Usain Bolt, 100m World Record holder courtesy of Richard Giles [8]
Usain Bolt, 100m World Record holder courtesy of Richard Giles [8]

Will you ever be able to move a barbell faster than you sprint? No. Does that mean you shouldn’t try to optimize bar speed? Heck no! VBT gives us valuable information regarding fatigue status and readiness, it also provides immediate and objective feedback, much like timed sprints, that will inform and enhance performance in live time. The principles behind desiring to time sprints to improve foot speed are the same as providing a speed metric to a barbell. Ensuring 90-100% effort and providing a metric that backs it up allows athletes to train with precision and to the best of their ability, time and again.

GAMIFY

Moreover, those same principles behind timing sprints and VBT help enhance performance by the simple gamification of the activity.

Gamify = To apply typical elements of game playing to an activity (e.g. point scoring, competition etc).

VBT, similar to timing sprints, helps create a competitive environment, the live outputs being the points. All of this has been shown to enhance skill acquisition [7] and ultimately yield improvements to the individual.

CONCLUSION

Velocity Based Training in a weight room will never yield numbers that rival velocities in a sprint. This is true. That, however, is not the goal of VBT. Optimizing bar speed, enhancing overall effort to acquire the trait, monitoring load, and creating strong and capable athletes in a weight room setting is the goal of VBT. True sprint speed should be acquired in a sprint training setting. Bar speed in a weight training setting.

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SOURCES:

  1. Francis, C. (1997). Training for speed. Canberra, A.C.T., Australia: Faccioni Speed & Conditioning Consultants.
  2. Morin, J. B., & Samozino, P. (2016). Interpreting power-force-velocity profiles for individualized and specific training. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance.
  3. Samozino, P., Rejc, E., Di Prampero, P. E., Belli, A., & Morin, J. B. (2012). Optimal force-velocity profile in ballistic movements-Altius: Citius or Fortius? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.
  4. Samozino, P., Rabita, G., Dorel, S., Slawinski, J., Peyrot, N., Saez de Villarreal, E., & Morin, J. B. (2016). A simple method for measuring power, force, velocity properties, and mechanical effectiveness in sprint running. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 26(6), 648–658.
  5. Jiménez-Reyes, P., Samozino, P., Brughelli, M., & Morin, J. B. (2017). Effectiveness of an individualized training based on force-velocity profiling during jumping. Frontiers in Physiology.
  6. World Athletics |. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2019, from https://www.worldathletics.org/records/by-category/world-records.
  7. Wulf, G., Shea, C., & Lewthwaite, R. (2010). Motor skill learning and performance: A review of influential factors. Medical Education, 44(1), 75–84.
  8. Usain Bolt Photo By Richard Giles, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8056420

Velocity Based Training can be a confusing name. We have also heard it called Velocity Based Resistance Training [3] which explains it just a touch more. Ultimately, it simply means the resistance training is based on the velocity, or speed, of the implement moved, rather than a percentage of a repetition maximum (RM). If you’ve been reading this blog regularly, this is not news to you. We wanted to touch again on some definitions at the start of this post, because what VBT is, is just as important as what it is not.

Velocity Based Training is not moving the implement as fast as possible at all times. It is moving the implement with as much intent or effort as possible at all times. VBT is not exclusively moving submaximal loads at maximal speeds. It is optimizing bar speed at varying loads based on specific traits and desired adaptations. VBT is not just velocity-based. It is intent-based [12].

WHEN AND WHY

With this in mind, let’s talk about when and why you would want to use velocity. The zones (below) are helpful starting points. Numerous researchers have discovered that submaximal loads can be used to improve maximal strength and power outputs provided they are performed within the velocity zones for the desired adaptation to take place [4-9]. With the risk of injury or overtraining happening the closer an individual gets to a maximal load, performing less than 100% of a predicted RM is a safer way to train [1,2]. That said, an individual can still train for maximal or absolute strength and use velocity as the indicative metric for the desired trait.

Velocity traits and zones on a continuum, adapted from Bryan Mann’s book [13].
Velocity traits and zones on a continuum, adapted from Bryan Mann’s book [13].

MAX STRENGTH AND VBT

As VBT is a slight misnomer in and of itself; an inaccurate assumption would be that velocity isn’t a useful metric when training for max strength. On the contrary, it can still be used and be used as a tool to enhance precision when training for any trait, max strength included [3,5,7]. In previous posts [LINK] we have mentioned that an individual’s 1RM can fluctuate by up to 18% in either direction on any given day [10,11]. This fluctuation can be corrected for when using a velocity zone: numbers don’t lie. To elaborate: the velocity output will reflect the training status of the individual. Stressed? The velocity output will reflect it. Well-rested? The velocity output will reflect that too. The closer an individual gets to their 1RM, the greater risk for injury [1,2]. Wouldn’t it benefit everyone involved if nearing the “danger zone” was approached with more accuracy? In this way, the risk of injury is reduced while the potential reward is maximized.

Velocity based training, therefore, shouldn’t exclusively be used when training for speed, it can and perhaps should be used at all times in order to continually assess athletes and minimize risk of injury while maximizing intent and potential adaptation due to increased specificity of velocity zones as opposed to percentages [12].

MINIMUM VELOCITY THRESHOLD

Another important thing to keep in mind when operating in the absolute strength velocity zone is what your minimal velocity threshold (MVT) is. This can be guessed or based on recommendations. We suggest performing a load/velocity profile (outlined below) and plotting the points in order to give you an estimated 1RM and what the estimated MVT is for that RM and the individual. Take a look at the protocol and sample graph below for a better idea of what we’re talking about here:

Protocol and subsequent hypothetical graph adapted from Gonzalez-Badillo (2017)[3].
Protocol and subsequent hypothetical graph adapted from Gonzalez-Badillo (2017)[3].

The Minimal Velocity Threshold will allow you to understand how slow is, in fact, too slow and thus at what point the lifter should be cut off from continuing to lift. Again, this ensures the lifter has reached what we’ll call their safest-slowest-speed and is minimizing risk of injury while simultaneously maximizing load lifted. When the lifter moves the load slower than their estimated MVT, you can assume it is time to rack the weight [9].

WRAP UP

Velocity outputs will not only reflect their absolute strength (or any desired trait), but will help you continually assess your athletes and ultimately enhance their ability to improve. Velocity based training doesn’t have to mean move the fastest always, it is the optimization of bar speed performed within velocity zones selected to improve specific traits. You can still move a bar slowly, but with maximal intent and effort, and your performance on each rep will be reflected in the velocity output.

CONCLUSION

Hopefully this post helped clarify any misunderstandings of VBT and when it can be used (always). Additionally, hopefully it provided some food for thought for creating load/velocity profiles for your athletes, MVT for each athlete and lift, and a greater understanding of max strength and VBT.

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SOURCES

  1. Braith, R. W., Graves, J. E., Leggett, S. H., & Pollock, M. L. (1993). Effect of training on the relationship between maximal and submaximal strength. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.
  2. Dohoney, P., Chromiak, J. A., Lemire, D., Abadie, B. R., & Kovacs, C. (2002). Prediction of one repetition maximum (1-RM) strength from a 4-6 RM and a7-10 RM submaximal strength test in healthy young adult males. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online.
  3. González Badillo, J. (2017). Fundamentals of velocity-based resistance training (1st ed.). Murcia: Ergottech.
  4. Gonzalez-Badillo, J.; Sanchez-Medina, L. Movement velocity as a measure of loading intensity in resistance training. Int. J. Sports Med. 2010, 31, 347–352.
  5. Jidovtseff, B.; Harris, N.; Crielaard, J.; Cronin, J. Using the load-velocity relationship for 1rm prediction. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2011, 25, 267–270.
  6. Jovanovich, M.; Flanagan, E. Research application of velocity based strength training. J. Aust. Strength Cond. 2014, 22, 58–69.
  7. Mann, B., Kazadi, K., Pirrung, E., & Jensen, J. (2016). Developing explosive athletes: Use of velocity based training in athletes. Muskegon Heights, MI: Ultimate Athlete Concepts.
  8. National Strength & Conditioning Association (U.S.). (2016). Essentials of strength training and conditioning (Fourth ed.) (G. Haff & N. Triplett, Eds.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  9. Lake, J., Naworynsky, D., Duncan, F., Jackson, M., Comparison of Different Minimal Velocity Thresholds to Establish Deadlift One Repetition Maximum. (2017). Sports, 5(3), 70.
  10. Martinez, D. B., & Kennedy, C. (2016). Velocity-Based Training and Autoregulation Applied To “Squatting Every Day”: a Case Study. Journal of Australian Strength & Conditioning.
  11. Mann, J. B., Thyfault, J. P., Ivey, P. A., & Sayers, S. P. (2010). The effect of autoregulatory progressive resistance exercise vs. linear periodization on strength improvement in college athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.
  12. Hirsch, S. M., & Frost, D. M. (2019). Considerations for Velocity-Based Training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, (July).
  13. Mann, B., Kazadi, K., Pirrung, E., & Jensen, J. (2016). Developing explosive athletes: Use of velocity based training in athletes. Muskegon Heights, MI: Ultimate Athlete Concepts.

FATIGUE MONITORING

Fatigue for athletes has been defined as “loss in total performance due to various physiological factors, athlete reported psychological factors, or a combination of the two” [1]. Muscular fatigue is therefore the point at which a muscle ceases to produce force [1]. Fatigue can produce negative impacts on the ability of an athlete to perform, or to adapt and respond to a training stimulus. In order to mitigate this, coaches must be aware of the stimulus they are providing and have progressions and regressions at the ready in the event an athlete cannot follow the program as written. Moreover, they must have a system in place for monitoring fatigue levels.

We discussed the nervous system at length in previous posts, the body’s hormonal response to stress doesn’t discern between good stress and bad stress, it recognizes all of it and acts accordingly. Regardless of the stressor, fatigue will result, and coaches need to be aware of this in order to effectively monitor and adapt programs on the fly. Fatigue monitoring allows a coach to observe the daily physiological and psychological accumulation of fatigue from day to day, week to week, phase to phase, and season to season.

Fatigue can be measured subjectively (questionnaires, RPE etc) or objectively (blood lactate, velocity etc) [1, 6-9]. The collected results will provide a good indication of how a team or group is responding to the training protocol and whether or not individualization needs to take place. Understanding the fatigue responses of athletes will allow a coach to enhance performances by preventing overtraining or injury, and maximizing adaptation with their programs.

READINESS ASSESSMENTS

Readiness assessments are fatigue monitoring wrapped into a pre-training session routine. This can give an initial view as to how the athlete’s nervous system is responding prior to the training session for the day. It can also effectively raise red flags around how well recovered the athlete is and how ready they are to perform the day’s session as written. A readiness assessment can be objective or subjective, and can be anything from a grip strength test, a vertical jump, to a questionnaire [7-9]. Coaches may have rules in place for performances or responses that will raise red flags and allow them to implement Plan B if an athlete is showing signs of fatigue.

USE VBT TO MONITOR FATIGUE AND ASSESS READINESS

Velocity based training can be implemented as a one-stop-shop of sorts to both monitor fatigue from session to session, and assess readiness prior to the day’s session. Within a session, this will look like cutoff thresholds or a percentage of velocity loss that indicates neuromuscular fatigue [4]. Prior to sessions, this will be a barbell squat jump that will provide a baseline, and any straying from that baseline be it positive or negative [5].

Using a leaderboard function with a VBT unit like Perch in the weight room will allow a team to challenge each other, push each other, encourage each other, and ultimately maximize their intent with their daily readiness assessments. Additionally, this can be done without any interruption to work flow. Athletes perform their assessments at their usual racks, no need to line up behind a unit or manually record their scores. Technology in the weight room should work for you, not against you.

LONGITUDINAL TRENDS

Coaches and practitioners have many years of practical experience under their belts that have helped them develop great programs and protocols for their athletes to maximize performance. Despite this, athletes have more stressors placed upon them now than ever with constant streams of information, school work, travel, socializing etc [6]. Coaches can help manage athlete stress load by assessing it regularly and monitoring over time for longitudinal trends.

If an individual isn’t responding well to the training stimulus, you can potentially assume it is something they are doing outside of the hour you may see them. If an entire team isn’t responding well to the training stimulus, it may be time to talk to the head sport coach or assess your program to help provide the right amount of stress in the weight room to warrant the adaptations you are looking for. Either way, fatigue monitoring and readiness assessments can help you regulate the load on the athlete and take action if you see something indicative of chronic fatigue or overtraining.

CONCLUSION

Remember: The greatest ability is availability. Monitor fatigue, assess readiness daily, and help your athletes stay on the field, court, track, pool etc longer to perform when they need to most.

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Keep checking back for more velocity based training content, tips, tricks, and tools. And don’t forget to follow us on Twitter , Instagram and Linkedin and like us on Facebook .

SOURCES:

  1. Micklewright D, Gibson ASC, Gladwell V, Salman AA. “Development and Validity of the Rating-of-Fatigue Scale.” Sports Medicine. March 2017.
  2. Thorpe, R. T., Atkinson, G., Drust, B., & Gregson, W. (2017). Monitoring fatigue status in elite team-sport athletes: Implications for practice. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12, 27–34.
  3. Taylor, J. L., Amann, M., Duchateau, J., Meeusen, R., & Rice, C. L. (2016). Neural contributions to muscle fatigue: From the brain to the muscle and back again. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.
  4. Sánchez-Medina, L., & González-Badillo, J. J. (2011). Velocity loss as an indicator of neuromuscular fatigue during resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(9), 1725–1734.
  5. Spiteri, T., Nimphius, S., Wolski, A., & Bird, S. (2013). Monitoring neuromuscular fatigue in female basketball players across training and game performance. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 21(S2), 73–74.
  6. Flanagan2, M. J. & D. E. P., & 1Hammarby. (2015). RESEARCHED APPLICATIONS OF VELOCITY BASED STRENGTH TRAINING Mladen. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 23(7), 58–69.
  7. Thorpe, R. T., Atkinson, G., Drust, B., & Gregson, W. (2017). Monitoring fatigue status in elite team-sport athletes: Implications for practice. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12, 27–34.
  8. Bourdon, P. C., Cardinale, M., Murray, A., Gastin, P., Kellmann, M., Varley, M. C., … Cable, N. T. (2017). Monitoring Athlete Training Loads : Consensus Statement Monitoring Athlete Training Loads : Consensus Statement. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12(May), 161–170.
  9. Taylor, K., Chapman, D., Cronin, J., Newton, M., & Gill, N. (2012). Fatigue monitoring in high performance sport: a survey of current trends. J Aust Strength Cond, 20(1), 12–23

INTRODUCTION

We touched on periodization a few weeks ago, but wanted to revisit it to help explain how the taught methods of strength & conditioning planning can easily be woven into the fabric of velocity based training and technology in the weight room.

The NSCA text describes periodization as: “the logical and systematic process of sequencing and integrating training interventions in order to achieve peak performance at appropriate time points.” [1].

Keep this definition in mind as we move through this post.

“WHAT GETS MEASURED, GETS MANAGED”

– PETER DRUCKER

While Mr. Drucker was more of a business consultant and author than strength coach, his musings transcend industry lines. By measuring once, we have a baseline, by measuring twice, we can see if our provided stimulus is improving or damaging the baseline. By continually measuring, we can continually assess and improve methodology and performance. Measure it, manage it. Assess, don’t guess. As practitioners we need to remember what we’re measuring, why we’re measuring it, and how we plan to manage it.

THE HISTORY OF PERIODIZATION

The earliest recording of progressive resistance training dates back to Ancient Greece, when Milo of Croton carried a newborn calf on his back every single day until it fully matured. As the calf grew bigger, Milo grew stronger. Whether or not Milo needed or received a rest day, or altered the load he lifted to be lighter in order to recover from new rep maxes every day is unknown.

Milo of Croton carrying his bull, one of the earliest recorded examples of progressive overload for resistance training.
Milo of Croton carrying his bull, one of the earliest recorded examples of progressive overload for resistance training.

Flash forward to the end of the 19th century and weightlifting’s first foray into the Olympics in 1896 with the men’s one hand and two hand lift, how they trained for it likely mirrored Milo of Croton’s efforts, though perhaps without the calf and simply the idea of progressive resistance. About 50 years later in the Soviet Union, a physiologist by the name of Leo Matveyev developed a model of periodization that spread far and wide and inspired his text. You might say he literally and figuratively wrote the book on modern periodization.

Ernest Cadine, a French Weightlifter and 1920 Olympic Champion in the two handed lift [6].
Ernest Cadine, a French Weightlifter and 1920 Olympic Champion in the two handed lift [6].

Around this same time, Hungarian-Canadian endocrinologist, Hans Selye, was developing his General Adaptation Syndrome theory. GAS is essentially a theory of stress that Selye witnessed from an endocrinologists perspective. Regardless of the stimulus or stressor, the symptoms followed three main phases: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. Remember the stressor was irrelevant to the overall reaction, we’ll come back to that. In essence, good training manages the stimulus to keep an individual between alarm and resistance, providing positive adaptation, without ever dipping into the exhaustion phase. Something interesting happens following the alarm phase when the body adapts to the original stressor through the resistance phase and improves upon its baseline. This is a phenomenon called supercompensation and is the result of the stimulus or training provided in the alarm phase.

About 30 years after Selye solidified his GAS theory, Charles Poliquin published his undulating or nonlinear periodization model, which replaced traditional larger focused cycles of training with shorter cycles of varying focuses and allowed for more frequent recovery intervals interspersed with cycles that consisted of both high volume and high intensity on varying days.

MEASURING OR GUESSING?

The 20th century yielded several decades worth of discovery and research that brought about modern periodization. These periodization schemes are still relevant today and can still be used to plan and implement strength training for individuals and teams alike. They can be used with percentage programs, they can be used with velocity programs, they can even be used with throwing or sprinting programs as well as a way to manage volume and intensity. The goal of periodization training is to optimize the principle of overload, which is the process of neuromuscular systems adapting to unaccustomed load or stressors. But again, without adequately measuring or quantifying the load or stressors, we are simply giving it our best guess. If you’re not measuring, you’re not managing.

MEASURING FATIGUE IN THE WEIGHT ROOM

There are numerous ways to measure fatigue. Some traditional means have been by using a hand dynamometer to test grip strength, or a vertec to test vertical jump height. With the integration of technology in sports performance settings, assessing athletes became easier and less disruptive. HRV, or heart rate variability, became important in team settings to consistently monitor fatigue and recovery through a session. But monitoring an athlete throughout their lifting session didn’t seem particularly easy or even possible until velocity based training became more commonplace. We’ve talked about the concept of autoregulation in previous posts. Having the ability to monitor an athlete day to day while they perform in the weight room, in order to mitigate the stimulus can help enhance overall performance. This simple addition to the weight room allows us to periodize using velocities to provide just the right amount of stress in the weight room to create the positive adaptations we are looking for.

Coaches can help their athletes understand intent and fatigue by incorporating objective measures, like velocity, into their programming.
Coaches can help their athletes understand intent and fatigue by incorporating objective measures, like velocity, into their programming.

STRESS RESPONSES EXPLAINED

Remember Hans Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome theory? He was an endocrinologist performing experiments and analyzing hormonal response. Stress hormones are released when the body is stressed (surprisingly) This stress can come in the form of training stimulus, of course, but it can also be in school work, or alcohol consumption, or lack of sleep, or trauma, or sickness, the list goes on. Traditional periodization schemes don’t necessarily account for these external stresses and their negative effects on training adaptation. They assume a perfect environment. Collegiate sports, professional sports, and military training are anything but a perfect environment. In order to provide a precise stimulus, we need precise tools. Again, traditional periodization and velocity based training can work exceptionally well together. The precision with which training can be executed using velocity can help our athletes reach their pinnacle and continually improve. Excess stress will be accounted for by training in velocity zones which can be both self limiting and self propelling. Or put simply: autoregulated.

PERIODIZATION AND VELOCITY

Ultimately, your understanding of periodization and programming doesn’t have to change, but the way in which you alter training sessions for an individual can be executed with maximal precision and minimal intrusion with velocity. Below we’ve included a graphic you’ve seen before using Tudor Bompa’s percentage based training traits overlaid with an adaptation of Bryan Mann’s velocity based training traits. You can train for these traits using velocity zones and maximize the training effect.

FOLLOW US!

Keep checking back for more velocity based training content, tips, tricks, and tools. And don’t forget to follow us on Twitter , Instagram and Linkedin and like us on Facebook .

SOURCES:

  1. Baechle, T., Earle, R., & National Strength & Conditioning Association (U.S.). (2008). Essentials of strength training and conditioning (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  2. Matveyev L. Fundamentals of Sports Training. Moscow: Progress; 1981
  3. Poliquin C. Five steps to increasing the effectiveness of your strength training program. NSCA J. 1988;10:34-39
  4. Selye H. Stress Without Distress. New York, NY: JB Lippincott; 1974
  5. Siff MC, Verkoshansky YV. Supertraining. 4th ed. Denver, CO: Supertraining International; 1999
  6. Heffernan, C. (2018, April 9). The History of Olympic Weightlifting. Retrieved from https://physicalculturestudy.com/2018/04/09/the-history-of-olympic-weightlifting/.

This post will help explain the mechanisms of muscular contractions from an anatomical perspective, and how the principles and purposes of velocity based training directly relates.

VBT AND MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS

All of the below is meant to give you a very concrete understanding of muscular anatomy and physiology in order to see how it relates to strength training and velocity based training specifically. We spoke in previous posts about force-velocity profiling. Force-Velocity relationships is simply the relationship between the speed at which a muscle length changes (regulated by either external load or other muscles) to the amount of force that same muscle generates. The properties of an individuals’ muscle tissue will dictate what the curve of the Force-Velocity profile looks like, and that curve can again shift by both recruiting more motor units in each contraction, and by increasing the firing rate of each contraction. And those two variables can change by training, and training specifically and with intent, as with velocity based training.

With the immediate and objective feedback given on a VBT unit like Perch, the intent of a lift is quantified in addition to tracked over time. These data points allow coaches a glimpse or baseline understanding of what is actually happening deep within the muscles of an athlete. Providing a number assigned to effort can help athletes understand what muscular contraction feels like at various effort levels and encourage them to be more in tune with their bodies. Training muscles to generate more force is simple, though not easy. Your program needs to teach athletes to:

  1. Recruit MORE motor units for each contraction
  2. Increase the firing rate of an already active group of motor units

With velocity based training technology becoming more commonplace in a variety of strength and sports performance settings, the rate at which this can be achieved is expedited and athletes can maximize their potential. The following will help you understand the why and how muscles contract.

TYPES OF MUSCULAR CONTRACTIONS

There are four types of muscle contractions:

  1. Isometric Contraction: The muscle generates tension without changing its length
  2. Isotonic Contraction: The muscle generates a consistent tension despite a change in its length.
  3. Concentric Contraction: Muscle tension overcomes the external load opposing it and the muscle shortens as it contracts
  4. Eccentric Contractions: Muscle tension is not greater than the external load opposing it and the muscle lengthens during contraction.

SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY

Every skeletal muscular contraction (with the exception of reflexes) originates in the brain. An electrochemical signal is sent through the nervous system to a motor neuron that innervates multiple muscle fibers. The actual anatomy of a single muscle can be seen below:

A layer by layer look at the anatomy of skeletal muscle, adapted from Scientist Cindy [6].
A layer by layer look at the anatomy of skeletal muscle, adapted from Scientist Cindy [6].

From smallest to largest, the layers of muscle tissue are:

Sarcomere: The smallest, most basic and functional unit of a muscle that determines contraction. Consisting of interlocked fibers (actin and myosin) and is responsible for the striations of muscle fibers. Many units live inside a single myofibril.

Myofibril: Long and parallel units of a muscle fiber composed of thick and thin myofilaments (contractile proteins called actin and myosin, and regulatory proteins called troponin and tropomyosin). Surrounded by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (or SR).

Muscle Fiber: Long cylindrical cells containing numerous myofibrils. Surrounded by the sarcolemma. Also known as a muscle cells.

Sarcolemma: The cell or plasma membrane that encloses each muscle fiber.

Endomysium: The smallest piece of connective tissue that encases a singular muscle fiber.

Muscle Fascicle: Bundles of muscle fibers surrounded by the perimysium.

Perimysium: The medium piece of connective tissue that encases multiple muscle fibers in their fascicle structure.

Epimysium: The largest piece of connective tissue, elastic and fibrous sheath that encases the entire muscle, simultaneously allowing it to maintain its integrity and move independently of other tissues and organs nearby.

Fascia: the layer of thick connective tissue that covers an entire muscle and resides over the layer of epimysium.

NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

The neuromuscular junction (also known as the myoneural junction and the motor end plate) is essentially a chemical synapse formed between the contact of a motor neuron and muscle fiber. The most basic unit is called a motor unit which consists of a singular alpha motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it can innervate, this can be seen below:

A rendering of a motor unit, taken and adapted from Gardiner [2].
A rendering of a motor unit, taken and adapted from Gardiner [2].

The motor neuron consists of the soma (cell body), dendrites, a nucleus, an axon (coated in a myelin sheath) and the axon terminal. The axon ends in a synaptic bulb or bouton (on the presynaptic side) which is where the junction or synapses form with a synaptic cleft in between the end of the bouton and the start of the target cell, the postsynaptic side. In skeletal muscle the target cell on the postsynaptic side has series of junctional folds that are coated in receptors. Below is a step by step summary of what happens at the neuromuscular junction:

  1. Action potential travels down the motor neuron causing the synaptic bouton to release neurotransmitter known as Acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft.
  2. Acetylcholine binds to the acetylcholine receptors in the junctional folds on the postsynaptic side.
  3. Once bound, ion channels open and allow positive sodium (Na) ions to flow into the postsynaptic cell. This depolarizes the cell and causes an end plate potential.
  4. The depolarization leads to an opening of voltage-gated sodium (Na) channels, turning the end plate potential into an action potential.
  5. The action potential travels along the muscle fiber and causes a contraction of the muscle fiber through Excitation-Contraction Coupling.
The “architecture of the neuromuscular junction” taken from Gonzalez-Friere et al. [3]
The “architecture of the neuromuscular junction” taken from Gonzalez-Friere et al. [3]

EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING

The excitation-contraction coupling is the series of events that takes place on the postsynaptic side summarized step-by-step here:

  1. The action potential triggered by the depolarization of the end plate potential travels through the rest of the sarcolemma across the surface of the cell
  2. The action potential travels into a structure known as T-Tubules which back up against the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
  3. The action potential triggers the release of calcium (Ca) from the terminal cisternae of the SR into the cytoplasm of the cell
  4. The Ca then binds to troponin, which shifts tropomyosin and exposes the myosin-binding sites on the actin.
  5. Myosin heads form cross bridges to the actin and begin the muscular contraction
  6. ATP binds to the myosin heads and causes them to release and reset
  7. Once Ca is pumped back into the SR via enzymatic processes, relaxation occurs
An overview of the excitation-contraction coupling originating at the neuromuscular junction. Adapted from Scientist Cindy [6]
An overview of the excitation-contraction coupling originating at the neuromuscular junction. Adapted from Scientist Cindy [6]

SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY

The sliding filament theory refers to the process of muscular contraction at the most basic level. With some overlap to excitation-contraction coupling, we’ll go step-by-step summary here:

The action potential stimulates the release of Ca into the muscle cell

The Ca binds to troponin (previously bound to actin), which clears the tropomyosin strand from the actin, thereby clearing binding sites for myosin.

Once myosin globular heads are bound to available actin sites using ATP configured as ADP + P, a “power stroke” occurs pulling the actin filament toward the center or M-Line

A new ATP then binds to myosin, which causes the cross-bridge formed to detach from the actin site.

The muscle can continue to contract if more ATP is present and can form another crossbridge, or it can relax and Ca will be shuttled back into the SR.

DIFFERENCES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS

Muscular contractions are controlled by action potentials (as you read above) and can be generally categorized as:

  1. Twitch: A single contraction and relaxation cycle produced within the muscle fiber itself
  2. (Wave) Summation: Occurs when multiple successive twitches are added to produce a larger and stronger muscle contraction
  3. Tetanus: Multiple contractions together to produce a continuous and strong contraction, this can be fused or unfused.
A look at the sliding-filament theory progression: Binding, Bending, Breaking, Bouncing. Copyright Benjamin Cummings 2001.
A look at the sliding-filament theory progression: Binding, Bending, Breaking, Bouncing. Copyright Benjamin Cummings 2001.

It is important to remember that at the very basic level, there are only two ways to change the amount of force generated in skeletal muscle:

  1. Recruit MORE motor units for each contraction
  2. Increase the firing rate of an already active group of motor units

Once all possible motor units are recruited and firing at their maximum rate, you have achieved a 1 Repetition Maximum (1RM). The body will always choose to recruit more motor units than destroy those currently in use if pressured. The length and extent of a contraction can also be regulated by motor unit recruitment through:

  1. Increasing the number of active motor neurons
  2. Activating the smallest/weakest motor units first, followed by larger motor units

CONCLUSION

At Perch, we are huge proponents of understanding the “why” behind everything. So while we believe velocity based training should be an integral part of every weight room setting to train muscles with precision and enhance overall athletic performance, we think understanding muscular anatomy is important to truly grasp this. Hopefully this was helpful for you as well!

FOLLOW US!

Keep checking back for more velocity based training content, tips, tricks, and tools. And don’t forget to follow us on Twitter , Instagram and Linkedin and like us on Facebook .

SOURCES

  1. Baechle, T., Earle, R., & National Strength & Conditioning Association (U.S.). (2008). Essentials of strength training and conditioning (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  2. Gardiner, P. (2011). Advanced neuromuscular exercise physiology (Advanced exercise physiology series). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  3. Gonzalez-Friere, M., Rafael, de C., Stephanie, S., & Luigi, F. (2014, August). The Architecture of a Neuromuscular Junction. Retrieved October 23, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/figure/The-architecture-of-a-neuromuscular-junction-NMJ-A-B-The-NMJ-is-composed-of-three_fig1_265056822.
  4. Gray, H., Williams, P., & Bannister, L. (1995). Gray’s anatomy : The anatomical basis of medicine and surgery (38th ed. / ed.). New York: Churchill Livingstone.
  5. Scanlon, V., & Sanders, T. (1999). Essentials of anatomy and physiology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
  6. Scientist, C. (n.d.). Muscles and Reflexes Lab. Retrieved October 23, 2019, from https://www.scientistcindy.com/muscles-and-reflexes-lab.html.

PROGRAMMING WITH VBT

Many hundred page textbooks have been written time and again on strength training and programming, yet very few manuals exist on Velocity Based Training specifically. We are trying to bridge the gap between the vast amount of knowledge out in the world with regards to lifting weights, and hope to provide some clarity on what VBT is, how to periodize with it, and how to program with it. A few weeks ago we posted a piece on Periodization and VBT. This week we are hoping to delve a little bit further into the various programming schemes for VBT to help shed a little more light on this. The majority of the information below was adapted from Bryan Mann’s “Developing Explosive Athletes” [6]. Additionally, multiple other sources are cited at the bottom, each of which helped us understand the information below further.

HOW TO PROGRAM A SET WITH VBT

A few weeks ago at Perch Headquarters, we challenged ourselves to a whiteboard session during which each team member brainstormed how many different ways a single set could be programmed. We brought our unique experiences and familiarity with programming to the table and talked through our ideas. What we realized is something as simple as a single set is shockingly complicated to program. This is true of percentage based training as well. Ultimately, we came to the conclusion that we needed to create guidelines (based in the research, obviously) that could serve as an at-a-glance look into the many ways velocity can be programmed. What you’ll see below is the result of that, and a few subsequent meetings and research sessions. As is commonly said in the strength & conditioning world with regards to programming, “there are a thousand ways to skin a cat.” Here are some more. Research on these methods is still in the works, but experimentation and collaboration with other coaches in the field is always a good idea.

SOURCES

  1. Banyard, H.; Nosaka, K.; Haff, G. Reliability and validity of the load-velocity relationship to predict the 1rm back squat. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2016, 31, 1897–1904.
  2. Bompa, T., & Buzzichelli, C. (2015). Periodization training for sports (Third ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics.
  3. Gonzalez-Badillo, J.; Sanchez-Medina, L. Movement velocity as a measure of loading intensity in resistance training. Int. J. Sports Med. 2010, 31, 347–352.
  4. Jidovtseff, B.; Harris, N.; Crielaard, J.; Cronin, J. Using the load-velocity relationship for 1rm prediction. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2011, 25, 267–270.
  5. Jovanovich, M.; Flanagan, E. Research application of velocity based strength training. J. Aust. Strength Cond. 2014, 22, 58–69.
  6. Mann, B., Kazadi, K., Pirrung, E., & Jensen, J. (2016). Developing explosive athletes: Use of velocity based training in athletes. Muskegon Heights, MI: Ultimate Athlete Concepts.
  7. National Strength & Conditioning Association (U.S.). (2016). Essentials of strength training and conditioning (Fourth ed.) (G. Haff & N. Triplett, Eds.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  8. Lake, J., Naworynsky, D., Duncan, F., Jackson, M., Comparison of Different Minimal Velocity Thresholds to Establish Deadlift One Repetition Maximum. (2017). Sports, 5(3), 70.